twitter: @rolygate


A central page for references, papers cited and resources linked on this website.

Categories - listed in alphabetical order
Lists - online lists of references
Caution - a note on COIs


Cigarettes - technical

1. 9,600 different identified compounds in cigarette tobacco and smoke:
Rodgman, Perfetti 2013
The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, 2nd Edition.

2. 5,300 tobacco compounds identified:
The  Chemical  Components  of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke.
Rodgman, A. and Perfetti, T.A.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009

3. Explanation for the chemical dependency action of tobacco smoke:

4. MAOIs: norharman (beta-carboline) and harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) are beta-carboline alkaloids and MAOIs:

5. A list of MAOIs:


Clinical research

1. Demonstration that nothing exists unless it has a published clinical study supporting it (parachutes cannot work since there has never been a therapy vs placebo clinical trial):

2. Concealment of clinical trial results:

3. Clinical trial results routinely withheld:



[caveat: see Caution at foot]


E-Cigarettes - regulation

1. Prof P Hajek:

2. Cabinet Office business regs blocking:

3. ASH UK:

4. MHRA ecig licensing:

5. ARI regulator guidance:


E-Cigarettes - research

1. Electronic cigarettes pose no health concern for users or bystanders:
Prof I. Burstyn, Drexel USPH

2. List of ecig studies:

3. ASH UK ecig survey:
Use of e-cigarettes in Great Britain among adults and young people (2013)

4. Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?
Cahn Z, Siegel M. - 2010
notable points:
- ecigs are ~1,000 times less toxic than cigs
- 8.2ng/g carcinogens detected, same level as NRTs

5. Evaluating Nicotine Levels Selection and Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use............
Farsalinos et al 2013


E-Cigarettes - technical

1. The first published study to address ecig nicotine transfer efficiency. The study found that on average, approximately 55% of nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquid ('e-liquid') is transferred to the vapour. Referred to as 'Goniewicz 1'.
Nicotine Levels in Electronic Cigarettes

2. This study examines the topic again, in more detail and with more measurements; it shows that, on average, 45 - 50% of the nicotine in e-liquid transfers to vapour (though there is an extreme range of efficiency from around 10% - 80%). We refer to this study as 'Goniewicz 2'.
Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour, and its consistency across batches: Regulatory implications
Goniewicz ML, Hajek P, McRobbie H

3. Dawkins, Corcoran 2014
E-Cigarette use raises nicotine plasma measurement to 13ng/ml average (a small sample of experienced users with 1st-generation hardware and average strength refills) :



1. How ideological beliefs make it impossible for people to recognise facts and evidence:
Motivated Numeracy and Enlightened Self-Government
Kahan, Peters, Dawson, Cantrell, Slovic
September 3, 2013. Available at SSRN:



1. A well-researched article:


1. J Britton - 5 million preventable deaths:

2. A high-quality video on ecigs from France:



1. MHRA / pharma COIs:
Pointing out that essentially the MHRA and the pharmaceutical industry are one and the same; not the ideal arrangement for a regulator.

2. Paul Flynn MP (Lab) claims that the MHRA lied to him:



1. Prof Mayer:
Archives of Toxicology 10.1007/s00204-013-1127-0, 4th Oct 2013.

2. Clinical trial examining the effect of nicotine on cognitive impairment (that utilised never-smokers):
3. ditto -

4. Nicotine in diet:

5. Survey of doctors revealing widespread ignorance about nicotine; 44% of UK doctors thought nicotine was associated with cancer, directly opposite to the facts (see NICE guidance - no association with cancer):

6. Nicotine in medicine:

7. Long-term effects of nicotine inhalation:

8. 2 year rat trial inhaled nicotine:

9. Nicotine inhaler trial:

10. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis
[data collation and discussion - not a trial]

11. DFG nicotine research library:

12. FDA Consumer Updates: the FDA no longer considers nicotine either dependence-forming or dangerous with overdose:

13. MCDA briefing:

14. Prof P Killeen of ASU:

15. Prof P Hajek, UKNSCC, 2013

16. Molimard - the myth of nicotine addiction:
An explanation of the reasons why nicotine dependence is not an issue, and how in his opinion Fagerstrom is partly responsible for reinforcing the myth for commercial reasons.

17. ACSH / Laugesen - nicotine:

18. A good article on cognitive enhancement research:

19. Nicotine is useless for suicide:


Nicotine - online resources

1. Germany-based online nicotine resource:

2. Stimson, Bates, Farsalinos:

3. IHRA:

4. Bates:
(comments from Sweanor, Hajek, etc.)


Pharmaceutical industry - criminal activity

1. pharma & crime:

2. pharma crime analysis:

3. Pharmacia & Upjohn criminal fraud:
(FBI: largest criminal fine ever paid, to date)

4. Pharmacia criminal fraud:

5. Pfizer criminal fraud:

6. Merck criminal fraud:

7. Abbott criminal fraud:

8. GSK criminal fraud, criminal corruption:

9. GSK corruption in China:

10. Supreme Court rules that all generic drugs are exempt from civil actions (80% of US drug sales):

11. Is big pharma addicted to fraud? (article)

12. Wikipedia list of 20 largest US fines for criminal fraud and criminal corruption by pharmaceutical companies:

13. list of notable fraud cases:

14. Johnson & Johnson criminal fraud:

15. Janssen criminal fraud:

16. Pfizer: Chantix - evidence for >500 suicides; good list of links to sources:


Pharmaceutical industry - funding

1. GSK funding:

2. RWJF grants to UCal / Glantz:


Pharmaceutical industry - influence

1. Experts Say Medical Practice Corrupted by Pharmaceutical Industry:

2. A document addressing the problem of medical professionals' COIs:

Corruption issues attributed to pharma

1. EU - more on Dalli:


Pharmaceutically-caused mortality

1. Pfizer settles 2,700 cases out of court for >$273m, in US Chantix class action:

2. Zyban associated with multiple mortalities in UK:


Pharmaceutical industry - propaganda

1. Pharma foundations and front groups:


Pharma-tobacco commercial links

1. Atria-Fertin


Public Health

1. NICE public health guidance 45
Tobacco: harm reduction approaches to smoking
[see commentary on this site]

2. Hansard: NHS asserts that ecigs are 1,000 times less toxic than cigarettes, and reasserts it in Parliament
[search: Smoking]
[the NHS citation is Cahn, Siegel 2010]

3. Prof R Polosa: Health policy is made for financial not health reasons:

National health services

1. NHS SSS (stop smoking services)


Research and Publishing Bias

1. PN Lee 2013
Re: Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry
(Letter to BMJ from tobacco funded researcher pointing out that his research often has conclusions that are highly damaging to the cigarette industry)

2. Low quality research - para 1 page 2 appears to decribe pharma-funded e-cigarette research perfectly:


Smoking cessation

1. Dr Ablow - 70% smoking cessation success at 3 months:

2. US ex-smokers survey:
July 2013
~68% quit using cold turkey
8% quit using pharmacotherapy
3% quit using ecigs

The survey closely replicates all other surveys of ex-smokers, except for the now-visible effect of ecigs (all surveys show about 70% quit unassisted, and the pharmaceutically-assisted group is always a fraction of the size; thus self-motivation is by far the most successful method). This is the first survey to show a clinically-significant effect (3% or greater) for ecigs. It will probably grow by 1%+ per year, indicating that there are some years to go before the percentage succeeding with ecigs equals that for pharmaceutical interventions.


Smoking - stats etc.

1. assorted resources:

2. India:
"Going by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India has an estimated 27.49 crore tobacco users including 16.37 crore users of smokeless tobacco and 7 crore smokers. The remaining 4 crore use both."
[1 crore, cr = 10 million, a South Asia numbering system]
Thus, India has:
7 + 4 cr smokers (110m)
16.34 + 4 cr ST users (203m)
4 cr dual users of cigs and ST (40m)
total 27.49 cr tobacco users (275m)

3. ONS smoking stats 2012 (UK):
"One in five adults (aged 16+) in Great Britain were cigarette smokers in 2012. The rate of smoking in Great Britain has remained largely unchanged over the last five years."
"It is likely that the survey underestimates cigarette consumption and, perhaps to a lesser extent, prevalence..."

4. R West et al
"Smoking prevalence in England is below 20% for the first time in 80 years."
Smoking prevalence in England was 19.3% in 2013.
West's Smoking Toolkit data is regarded as the most accurate of smoking stats for the UK.

5. Global smoking trends:


Snus & ST

1. Lee, Hamling 2009
Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America.
(Large-scale meta analysis of 89 ST studies; Snus has no demonstrated elevation of risk for oral cancer, but obsolete US products were implicated)
Short form:
Full study:

2. B Rodu
(2009 article - analysis of Lee, Hamling's work)

3. Lee 2011
Summary of the epidemiological evidence relating Snus to health.
(No association with cancer, heart disease),f1000m,isrctn

4. Lee & Hamling 2010
Powerpoint slides from a presentation on Snus

5. Ingeborg, Scheffels 2012
The Relative Risk to Health From Snus and Cigarettes
(Good explanation of ST vs smoking risks; useful list of refs)

6. Timberlake, Zell 2009
...smokeless tobacco's role in harm reduction
(A commentary from CDC personnel; some obfuscation of the facts discussed, e.g. an incorrect report of Lee, Hamling's conclusions)

7. Phillips, Rodu
Health Effects of ST
(Good Q&A on ST & health, esp. myths)

8. Foulds, Ramstrom, Burke, Fagerström
Effect of Snus on smoking and public health in Sweden.
(Discussion of how Snus reduced smoking and smoking related-mortality; ~30% of ex-smokers in the studies they examined used Snus to quit, which would be by far the largest successful ex-smoker group behind the non-assisted group),f1000m,isrctn

9. Environ 2010
Review of the Scientific Literature on Snus.
(An evidence review for Swedish Match, the Snus manufacturers)


EU and Snus

1. Bates, Ramstrom 2013
Proposed revision to the Tobacco Products Directive.

2. Rodu 2013
What the EU Snus Ban Means: 290,865 Casualties Per Year
(Brad Rodu kindly updated his estimates for EU mortality due to regulatory policy; a useful guide to the cost in human life)
[We now know that the EU Snus ban costs between 70,000 lives (current absolute minimum*) and 291,000 lives (probable maximum) per year]

* The EU Snus ban is 21 years old @2013. To suggest that less than 10% (70,000) of the reported annual 700,000 smoking deaths in the EU could not have been prevented by allowing free access to Snus would be a fantasy (Sweden is the world leader in reducing smoking mortality, due to free access to Snus, and has the lowest smoking-related mortality by a wide margin).


THR blogs & resources

Carl Phillips
Ex-Prof of Public Health at Alberta. Authority on the science base for THR and principal scientist curating the evidence.
- A blog that mainly examines anti-THR junk science and propaganda, and the liars (often named) who protect smoking to benefit pharma.

CV Phillips (see above)
- A blog on the 'ep-' sciences, especially as related to THR and associated public health issues.

Brad Rodu
Prof of Medicine at Louisville, KY. Specialist in oral pathology, leading authority on the oral pathology of tobacco consumption. Authority on the science base for THR.
- Blog that examines public health and THR issues, with a speciality in smokeless tobacco (e.g. Snus).

Michael Siegel
Prof of Public Health at Boston Uni. Tobacco control practitioner though supportive of e-cigarettes.
- 'The Rest of the Story...' blog - looks at the full story behind news items in the public health / tobacco area. Although a tobacco control industry member, Siegel struggles with the evidence of fraud within his own profession, frequently commenting on the poor standard of published research, or the obvious misuse of parts of it by anti-THR propagandists.

Phillips, Rodu, plus other contributors.
- A site featuring various resources related to the THR area. Now essentially an archive, since the authors have moved to other sites for their main work in this area.

Paul Bergen
Tobacco Harm Reduction: News & Opinions
- A blog on public health / THR issues by a well-known Canadian researcher. Originally an Alberta product and including posts by others such as CV Phillips, the authors have moved on, and PB now concentrates on the CAN vapers / ECTA blog below. Essentially an archive now, like THR org.

Rodu, Cole
- A blog for smokers, examining THR alternatives and similar issues.

Murray Laugesen
- A resource site run by the veteran NZ researcher who has the honour of having carried out the first research on ecigs, many years ago.

- Paul Bergen's new home.

THR RSS feeds

The first consumer association in the world for ecigs, also covers all THR substitution products such as Snus and dissolvables (less thoroughly).


Tobacco Control Industry

1. A wiki on the industry:






Lists of THR-Related References

1. THR org list

2. Ecig research list:

3. CASAA lists:




This list of references does not imply support or approval, simply that some aspect of the citation or material listed is of interest.

Please see the article at: About Clinical Studies And Evidence