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References: Cigarettes, Smoking

A page with collated references to resources relevant to cigarettes and smoking.


Cigarettes - technical

1. 9,600 different identified compounds in cigarette tobacco and smoke:
Rodgman, Perfetti 2013
The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke, 2nd Edition.

2. 5,300 tobacco compounds identified (the earlier edition):
The  Chemical  Components  of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke.
Rodgman, A. and Perfetti, T.A.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009

3. Explanation for the chemical dependency action of tobacco smoke:

4. MAOIs: norharman (beta-carboline) and harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline) are beta-carboline alkaloids and MAOIs:

5. A list of MAOIs:


Cigarettes - sales

1. Danish cigarette sales down 11% partly due to ecigs:


Smoking cessation

1. Dr Ablow - 70% smoking cessation success at 3 months:

2. US ex-smokers survey:
July 2013
~68% quit using cold turkey
8% quit using pharmacotherapy
3% quit using ecigs
The survey closely replicates all other surveys of ex-smokers (except for the now-visible effect of ecigs): all surveys show about 70% quit unassisted, and the pharmaceutically-assisted group is always a fraction of the size; thus self-motivation is by far the most successful method. This is the first survey to show a clinically-significant effect (3% or greater) for ecigs. It will probably grow by 1%+ per year.

3. S Chapman on how unassisted quitting is best (and he is both correct and impossible to contradict):
Chapman is something of a rarity in the TCI as he is not a pharma pimp, and should be commended for it.

4. John Polito resources:

Smoking - statistics

1. Assorted resources:

2. India:
"Going by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India has an estimated 27.49 crore tobacco users including 16.37 crore users of smokeless tobacco and 7 crore smokers. The remaining 4 crore use both."
[1 crore, cr = 10 million, a South Asia numbering system]
Thus, India has:
7 + 4 cr smokers (110m)
16.34 + 4 cr ST users (203m)
4 cr dual users of cigs and ST (40m)
total 27.49 cr tobacco users (275m)

3. ONS smoking stats 2012 (UK):
"One in five adults (aged 16+) in Great Britain were cigarette smokers in 2012. The rate of smoking in Great Britain has remained largely unchanged over the last five years."
"It is likely that the survey underestimates cigarette consumption and, perhaps to a lesser extent, prevalence..."

4. R West et al
Smoking prevalence in England was 19.3% in 2013.
"Smoking prevalence in England is below 20% for the first time in 80 years."
West's Smoking Toolkit data is regarded as the most accurate of smoking stats for the UK.

5. Global smoking trends:

6. ISS -  International smoking statistics from PN Lee:

7. Youth smoking in Scotland at record low level:

8. Useful figures from CVP on relative risks of the amount of smoking:

9. R West's UK longitudinal / ongoing smoking research studies, reputed to be the most accurate current smoking stats in the world.
The 2014 update reveals:
- 16% of current and recent UK smokers now use ecigs
- Ecig use by never-smokers is extremely rare
- The increase in use of ecigs has been accompanied by a decline in use of NRTs
- There has been a small increase in motivation to quit [i.e. no reduction] and attempts to quit [again, no reduction]
- There has been an increase in the rate of quitting smoking
- Smoking prevalence is declining faster than any year since 2008
- Cigarette and overall nicotine use has decreased
- The cigarette and nicotine markets are both declining
- The evidence does not support any view that ecigs are undermining tobacco control, motivation to quit, or reduction in smoking prevalence - the opposite is the case since they appear to be contributing to a reduction in smoking prevalence by improving the quit rate

NB: (separately) NHS SSS managers report a 20% decline in demand for stop smoking services (@Q1 2014), probably due to smokers turning to ecigs as a perceived better option. The best NHS SSS managers are now using ecigs, since that is where the growing demand is.

10. ASH UK, April 2014
Use of electronic cigarettes in Great Britain
2.1 million UK vapers
33% have quit smoking
693,000 UK citizens have quit smoking by use of an ecig @April 2014

11. Recent UK smoking and ecig surveys, April 2014:

Both the ASH UK and R West Smoking Toolkit ongoing surveys agree:
There are more than 2 million ecig users in the UK.
The number of ecig users has trebled in 2 years.
More than half of smokers have tried (or use) an ecig.
About 33% of ecig users have quit smoking (~700,000)
Half of all quit attempts are now made with an ecig.
Quitting using an ecig is far more successful than any other assisted method, and vastly more successful than demonstrated in clinical trials (rough calc is x3).
41% of vapers use a refillable device.
About 0.1% of previously non-smokers use an ecig.
Only 1% of non-smoking minors have ever tried an ecig, and the number who are ecig users is not measurable.

This destroys the 'gateway' argument, the 'threat to children' argument, the 'flavours will hook children' argument, the 'ecigs don't work for smoking cessation' argument, and the 'ecigs will prevent smokers from quitting' argument (i.e. all the pseudo-arguments against ecigs enabling protectionist policy decisions). The only valid argument left is: "We don't know what the long-term health impact is", an argument that does not have sufficient merit to support bans or severe restrictions since we know what the short-term effects are and there are no visible disease paths.